Power plug is also called the power cord plug, English is plug. power used in various fields, various countries. General power plug only connected on the power cord can be used, according to the power plug the use is not the same, the power cord plug can be used in the 125V, 36V, 250V voltage, according to the difference of the current can be used in 13A, 10A, 16A, 5A, 2.5A.
Power plug can be divided into the conversion power supply plug, injection power plug and power supply plug.
Switching power plug: the power source plug standard for each country is different, for example, China’s power plug to the United States, it can not be used, it is necessary to need a conversion plug to complete the conversion. So you need to convert the power plug. The power plug is the plug of a national standard to be converted into a power plug for another national standard.
Injection power plug: injection plug is the plug and line through high temperature, high pressure, once formed, it can not be installed, so the power plug is very clear, stable, safe. On the market, the general circulation of the power supply is more than 80% of the plug.
Assembly power plug: the plug is the power cord and plug connection through the screw, but in the use of the process can be installed, so that the power of the power plug. For example, in the UK market there is a large proportion of the use of such an assembly power plug
Power plug generally can be divided into 2 core power plug, 3 core power plug and multi core power plug.
2 core power plug: 2 core power plug as the name suggests is two in sheet or a two pin, in particular in tablets or pins, each country is not the same as the standard, such as China is two insert, Europe is two round needle plug.
Three core plug: three core plug as the name suggests is plugs have three insert or three pins or is two insert or add two pins of a grounding hole. Such a structure than the core power plug complex, what standard size and diameter of pin are required and the distance between the length and the pin are considered.
Multi core power plug: this multi core power plug on the more complex, what 4 core power plug, 5 core power plug what, according to customer requirements, the use of which specific devices are based on real situation to consider.
Power adapter is a small portable electronic equipment and electrical appliances, power supply conversion equipment, generally by the shell, power transformer and rectifier circuit, according to their output type can be divided into AC output and DC output type; according to the connection mode can be divided into wall mounted and desktop type. Extensive support in the telephone composite machine, game machine, language repeater, Walkman, notebook computers, cellular phones, etc. equipment.
In the power adapter (called adapter), a few of them are required to be noted. First, is the type of adapter, for example, a adapter model is XVE-120100, it tells us some information, it is the manufacturer, main parameters and so on, at the beginning of the XVE is ## code, 120100 is that the adapter is 12W, 050200 is 10W; second is the adapter of the INPUT (input) in general, China is generally 100-240V~50-60Hz, indicating that this adapter can 100V-240V voltage below normal work; third is adapter OUTPUT (output), two numbers can quickly calculate the number of tiles adapter, such as the adapter, voltage 12V* and current 1A=12W (power), the power supply is 12W adapter.
Most laptop power adapter can be used for 100 ~ 240V alternating current (50/60Hz). Basically, most of the laptop computer all the power supply, with a power cord and the host connection, so that the size and weight of the host, only a very small number of models in the host
What does the nominal voltage and current of the power adapter (hereinafter referred to as power supply)? First of all, the general power supply nominal voltage is the open circuit output voltage, that is, the outside is not connected to any load, there is no current output voltage, so it can be understood as the power output voltage is the upper limit.
For internal power supply using the active voltage stabilizing element, even if the fluctuations in mains voltage, its output is also a constant value, as the market general transformer, such as like the Walkman with power, if the city power fluctuation and the power supply output does not fluctuate of.
Generally speaking, the real no-load voltage adapter is not necessarily the same as the nominal voltage, because the characteristics of electronic components can not be completely consistent, so there is a certain error, the smaller the error, the higher the consistency of electronic components, the higher the cost of production, so the price is more expensive.
The structure of multi output switching power supply with backup battery
In the normal condition of the city, the city’s power supply and auxiliary power supply of the multi – channel isolated output switching power supply. Multi output switching power supply output switching power supply, power supply requirements for different load, can design the corresponding multi output switching power supply, which is the same as the main circuit of power supply. At the same time, the auxiliary power supply is also the power supply of the power supply to the power supply. In the case of the city, the charge / controller for the battery charging, the battery charging, charging / controller for the battery to float charging / controller for the boost circuit to provide power, so that the work, the output set of high voltage DC power.
When the power failure of the city due to fault, auxiliary power. Because the boost circuit output high voltage DC power, and even the electrolytic capacitor, so it can be separated from the output switch power supply. At this point, the battery immediately into the work, for the boost circuit power supply. The battery is limited by its capacity and can not be unlimited power supply, so the charge / controller to continuously detect the battery voltage state, when the voltage is low to a certain value (generally 25, 1.8 V), the charge / controller will stop the battery load, so as to avoid the battery life ahead of discharge. In order to guarantee the safe operation of the load of the multi output switching power supply, the charge / controller is cut off by the external communication interface and the signal is transmitted to the control circuit of the load in the multi-channel isolation output switch power supply. Such a charge / controller can be safely disconnected from the battery, while the MCU in the charge / controller is shut down all the possible power consumption of the circuit, and the power consumption is further reduced. When the city is back to normal, the multi-channel isolated output switch power supply starts to work, while the auxiliary power supply works, the charge / controller starts to charge the battery, the boost circuit also starts to work.
If the battery starts working in the city after the power failure, the electric power is back to normal, the battery will be stopped immediately for the boost circuit, and the charging / controller starts to charge the battery. The electric energy of the battery is always in the backup function, and in the normal state of the city, the charge / controller can replenish its energy storage or keep its capacity in the maximum state.
People on the energy saving and environmental protection requirements are increasingly high, power adapter, switching power, charger and other external power supply as efficient, energy-saving products are also in this plan. The EU is independently promoting the voluntary and mandatory plans of the external power (power adapter, switching power supply, charger) to further improve the energy efficiency requirements of external power (power adapter, switching power supply, charger). And the U.S. Department of energy (DoE) is also in the 2013 released a proposed rule making the announcement (NOPR), the main focus of this standard: power adapter, switching power supply, the charger is the energy saving standard VI DoE.
EU V5 CoC standards:
The EU is independent of the external power to promote the voluntary and mandatory plans to further improve the external power (power adapter, switching power, charger and other external power supply) of energy efficiency requirements. At present, the mandatory requirements for the external power supply of the EU 278/2009 ErP. The EU released the draft of external power energy efficiency behavior standards V5 CoC in 2013.3 months to further improve the power supply (including power adapter, switching power, charger and other external power supply) of the energy efficiency requirements standards. The efficiency and load power requirements of the new CoC voluntary guidelines are higher than the current ErP eco design requirements, but it is lower than the current draft of the U.S. Department of energy. The efficiency requirements of the CoC guidelines are added to the efficiency of the 10% load conditions in order to ensure the efficiency of certain applications. Where the first phase of the proposed effective date is January 1, 2014, the second phase of the proposed effective date for January 1, 2016.
Requirements for the power consumption of the external power supply mode in V5 CoC
＞0.3W且＜49W 0.150W 0.075W
≥49W且＜250W 0.250W 0.150W
移动手持式电池驱动，＜8W 0.075W 0.075W
Efficiency requirements for external power supply (not included) in V5 CoC
额定输出功率（Pno） 主动模式时四个测试点的平均效率 主动模式时10%额定输出电流时的平均效率
第一阶段 第二阶段 第一阶段 第二阶段
0＜Pno＜1 ≥0.50* Pno+0.145 ≥0.50* Pno+0.16 ≥0.50*Pno+ 0.045 ≥0.50*Pno+ 0.06
1＜Pno≤49 ≥0.0626*ln(Pno) + 0.645 ≥0.071*ln(Pno)- 0.0014*Pno+0.67 ≥0.0626*ln(Pno) + 0.545 ≥0.071*ln(Pno)- 0.0014*Pno+0.57
49＜Pno≤250 ≥0.89 ≥0.89 ≥0.79 ≥0.79
Efficiency requirements for external power supply in V5 CoC (low voltage external power supply)
额定输出功率（Pno） 主动模式时四个测试点的平均效率 主动模式时10%额定输出电流时的平均效率
第一阶段 第二阶段 第二阶段
0＜Pno＜1 ≥0.50* Pno+0.085 ≥0.517*Pno+ 0.087 ≥0.50*Pno ≥0.517*Pno
1＜Pno≤49 ≥0.0755*ln(Pno) + 0.585 ≥0.0834*ln(Pno)- 0.0014*Pno+0.609 ≥0.0755*ln(Pno) + 0.485 ≥0.0834*ln(Pno)- 0.0014*Pno+0.509
49＜Pno≤250 ≥0.88 ≥0.88 ≥0.78 ≥0.78
United States VI DoE (six level energy efficiency) standards:
The U.S. Department of energy (DoE) is also in the 2013 released a proposed rule to develop the announcement (NOPR), the main target: battery charger with the external power of the energy saving standard is VI DoE. The standard power supply includes an external power supply (BCS) and / or an external power supply (EPS), which includes a battery charging system () and / or an external power supply (), which is defined in the regulations, or is an increase in the number of constraints, or is becoming more stringent in the existing limits. Any charge product or external power supply (EPS) will be within the scope of this ordinance. The regulations include: providing products corresponding to the label, and most likely required to register on the U.S. Department of energy (DoE) website. It is reported to be effective in July 1, 2013. We will detail the specific requirements of the EU V5 CoC and VI DoE, please pay attention to the news that we have released. In line with the EU V5 CoC and the United States VI DoE six energy efficiency part of the product.